Level II

The intensive forest monitoring is key for providing insight into cause-and-effect relationships between the condition of forest ecosystems and various stress factors such as air pollution and drought.

Set-up of the ICP Forests intensive monitoring

  • around 800 plots have been established
  • major European forest types are represented
  • the integrating evaluation of different surveys offers the possibility to understand complex ecosystem processes.

Surveys carried out within the intensive monitoring programme

Survey Frequency N. of plots
Crown condition annually 797
Foliar chemistry every 2 years 767
Soil chemistry every 10 years 738
Tree growth every 5 years 769
Ground vegetation every 5 years 723
Stand structure incl. deadwood test phase ongoing 90
Epiphytic lichens test phase ongoing 90
Soil solution chemistry continuously 254
Atmospheric deposition continuously 545
Ambient air quality continuously 41
Meteorology continuously 209
Phenology several times per year data validation ongoing
Litterfall continuously data validation ongoing
Remote sensing preferably at plot installation national data

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